Saturday, 21 June 2014

St Mark 14: 53-72

St Mark 14:

53 Et adduxerunt Jesum ad summum sacerdotem: et convenerunt omnes sacerdotes, et scribæ, et seniores.54 Petrus autem a longe secutus est eum usque intro in atrium summi sacerdotis: et sedebat cum ministris ad ignem, et calefaciebat se. 55 Summi vero sacerdotes et omne concilium quærebant adversus Jesum testimonium ut eum morti traderent: nec inveniebant. 56 Multi enim testimonium falsum dicebant adversus eum: et convenientia testimonia non erant. 57 Et quidam surgentes, falsum testimonium ferebant adversus eum, dicentes: 58 Quoniam nos audivimus eum dicentem: Ego dissolvam templum hoc manu factum, et per triduum aliud non manu factum ædificabo. 59 Et non erat conveniens testimonium illorum. 60 Et exsurgens summus sacerdos in medium, interrogavit Jesum, dicens: Non respondes quidquam ad ea quæ tibi objiciuntur ab his? 61 Ille autem tacebat, et nihil respondit. Rursum summus sacerdos interrogabat eum, et dixit ei: Tu es Christus Filius Dei benedicti? 62 Jesus autem dixit illi: Ego sum: et videbitis Filium hominis sedentem a dextris virtutis Dei, et venientem cum nubibus cæli. 63 Summus autem sacerdos scindens vestimenta sua, ait: Quid adhuc desideramus testes? 64 Audistis blasphemiam: quid vobis videtur? Qui omnes condemnaverunt eum esse reum mortis. 65 Et cœperunt quidam conspuere eum, et velare faciem ejus, et colaphis eum cædere, et dicere ei: Prophetiza: et ministri alapis eum cædebant.66 Et cum esset Petrus in atrio deorsum, venit una ex ancillis summi sacerdotis: 67 et cum vidisset Petrum calefacientem se, aspiciens illum, ait: Et tu cum Jesu Nazareno eras. 68 At ille negavit, dicens: Neque scio, neque novi quid dicas. Et exiit foras ante atrium, et gallus cantavit. 69 Rursus autem cum vidisset illum ancilla, cœpit dicere circumstantibus: Quia hic ex illis est. 70 At ille iterum negavit. Et post pusillum rursus qui astabant, dicebant Petro: Vere ex illis es: nam et Galilæus es. 71 Ille autem cœpit anathematizare et jurare: Quia nescio hominem istum, quem dicitis. 72 Et statim gallus iterum cantavit. Et recordatus est Petrus verbi quod dixerat ei Jesus: Priusquam gallus cantet bis, ter me negabis. Et cœpit flere.

[53] And they brought Jesus to the high priest; and all the priests and the scribes and the ancients assembled together. [54] And Peter followed him from afar off, even into the court of the high priest; and he sat with the servants at the fire, and warmed himself. [55] And the chief priests and all the council sought for evidence against Jesus, that they might put him to death, and found none.[56] For many bore false witness against him, and their evidences were not agreeing. [57] And some rising up, bore false witness against him, saying: [58] We heard him say, I will destroy this temple made with hands, and within three days I will build another not made with hands. [59] And their witness did not agree. [60] And the high priest rising up in the midst, asked Jesus, saying: Answerest thou nothing to the things that are laid to thy charge by these men?[61] But he held his peace, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, and said to him: Art thou the Christ the Son of the blessed God? [62] And Jesus said to him: I am. And you shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of the power of God, and coming with the clouds of heaven. [63] Then the high priest rending his garments, saith: What need we any further witnesses? [64] You have heard the blasphemy. What think you? Who all condemned him to be guilty of death. [65] And some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to buffet him, and to say unto him: Prophesy: and the servants struck him with the palms of their hands.[66] Now when Peter was in the court below, there cometh one of the maidservants of the high priest. [67] And when she had seen Peter warming himself, looking on him she saith: Thou also wast with Jesus of Nazareth. [68] But he denied, saying: I neither know nor understand what thou sayest. And he went forth before the court; and the cock crew. [69] And again a maidservant seeing him, began to say to the standers by: This is one of them. [70] But he denied again. And after a while they that stood by said again to Peter: Surely thou art one of them; for thou art also a Galilean.[71] But he began to curse and to swear, saying; I know not this man of whom you speak. [72] And immediately the cock crew again. And Peter remembered the word that Jesus had said unto him: Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt thrice deny me. And he began to weep.

Commentary (de Lapide)

Ver. 68. And the cock crew. Hear S. Chrysostom on S. Matt. xxvi. 70, “Mark signifies that neither by the crow of the cock was he led to remember, nor did it keep him from denial.” Chrysostom adds, “Mark only has written thus, most accurately detailing the gracious care of the Master for His disciple, and Peter’s weakness. Wherefore we ought especially to admire him, because he not only did not hide his master’s fault, but wrote the account of it in greater detail than the others, for this very reason that he was Peter’s disciple.”

Ver. 70. For thou art also a Galilæan. That is, by speaking in the idiom of the Galilæans thou showest thyself to be a Galilæan. The Arabic adds, And thy speech is similar to their speech.

Ver. 72. And he began to weep: Gr. ε̉πιβαλών έκλαιε, i.e., literally, adding he was weeping; which you may translate, 1st, he began to weep; 2nd, he added to weep, i.e., “he began to weep very violently,” says Theophylact. The Arabic is, and he betook himself to tears, not in the court before the Jews, that he might not betray himself to them, but when he was alone, having gone out of it as appears from S. Matt. xxvi. 75.

Friday, 20 June 2014

St Mark 14: 27-52

St Mark 14:27-52:

27 Et ait eis Jesus: Omnes scandalizabimini in me in nocte ista: quia scriptum est: Percutiam pastorem, et dispergentur oves. 28 Sed postquam resurrexero, præcedam vos in Galilæam. 29 Petrus autem ait illi: Et si omnes scandalizati fuerint in te, sed non ego. 30 Et ait illi Jesus: Amen dico tibi, quia tu hodie in nocte hac, priusquam gallus vocem bis dederit, ter me es negaturus. 31 At ille amplius loquebatur: Et si oportuerit me simul commori tibi, non te negabo. Similiter autem et omnes dicebant.32 Et veniunt in prædium, cui nomen Gethsemani. Et ait discipulis suis: Sedete hic donec orem. 33 Et assumit Petrum, et Jacobum, et Joannem secum: et cœpit pavere et tædere. 34 Et ait illis: Tristis est anima mea usque ad mortem: sustinete hic, et vigilate. 35 Et cum processisset paululum, procidit super terram, et orabat ut, si fieri posset, transiret ab eo hora. 36 Et dixit: Abba pater, omnia tibi possibilia sunt: transfer calicem hunc a me: sed non quod ego volo, sed quod tu. 37 Et venit, et invenit eos dormientes. Et ait Petro: Simon, dormis? non potuisti una hora vigilare? 38 vigilate et orate, ut non intretis in tentationem. Spiritus quidem promptus est, caro vero infirma. 39 Et iterum abiens oravit, eumdem sermonem dicens. 40 Et reversus, denuo invenit eos dormientes (erant enim oculi eorum gravati), et ignorabant quid responderent ei. 41 Et venit tertio, et ait illis: Dormite jam, et requiescite. Sufficit: venit hora: ecce Filius hominis tradetur in manus peccatorum. 42 Surgite, eamus: ecce qui me tradet, prope est.43 Et, adhuc eo loquente, venit Judas Iscariotes unus de duodecim, et cum eo turba multa cum gladiis et lignis, a summis sacerdotibus, et scribis, et senioribus. 44 Dederat autem traditor ejus signum eis, dicens: Quemcumque osculatus fuero, ipse est, tenete eum, et ducite caute. 45 Et cum venisset, statim accedens ad eum, ait: Ave Rabbi: et osculatus est eum. 46 At illi manus injecerunt in eum, et tenuerunt eum. 47 Unus autem quidam de circumstantibus educens gladium, percussit servum summi sacerdotis, et amputavit illi auriculam. 48 Et respondens Jesus, ait illis: Tamquam ad latronem existis cum gladiis et lignis comprehendere me? 49 quotidie eram apud vos in templo docens, et non me tenuistis. Sed ut impleantur Scripturæ. 50 Tunc discipuli ejus relinquentes eum, omnes fugerunt. 51 Adolescens autem quidam sequebatur eum amictus sindone super nudo: et tenuerunt eum. 52 At ille rejecta sindone, nudus profugit ab eis. 

[27] And Jesus saith to them: You will all be scandalized in my regard this night; for it is written, I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep shall be dispersed. [28] But after I shall be risen again, I will go before you into Galilee. [29] But Peter saith to him: Although all shall be scandalized in thee, yet not I. [30] And Jesus saith to him: Amen I say to thee, today, even in this night, before the cock crow twice, thou shall deny me thrice.[31] But he spoke the more vehemently: Although I should die together with thee, I will not deny thee. And in like manner also said they all. [32] And they came to a farm called Gethsemani. And he saith to his disciples: Sit you here, while I pray. [33] And he taketh Peter and James and John with him; and he began to fear and to be heavy. [34] And he saith to them: My soul is sorrowful even unto death; stay you here, and watch. [35] And when he was gone forward a little, he fell flat on the ground; and he prayed, that if it might be, the hour might pass from him.[36] And he saith: Abba, Father, all things are possible to thee: remove this chalice from me; but not what I will, but what thou wilt. [37] And he cometh, and findeth them sleeping. And he saith to Peter: Simon, sleepest thou? couldst thou not watch one hour? [38] Watch ye, and pray that you enter not into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak. [39] And going away again, he prayed, saying the same words. [40] And when he returned, he found them again asleep, (for their eyes were heavy,) and they knew not what to answer him.[41] And he cometh the third time, and saith to them: Sleep ye now, and take your rest. It is enough: the hour is come: behold the Son of man shall be betrayed into the hands of sinners. [42] Rise up, let us go. Behold, he that will betray me is at hand. [43] And while he was yet speaking, cometh Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve: and with him a great multitude with swords and staves, from the chief priests and the scribes and the ancients. [44] And he that betrayed him, had given them a sign, saying: Whomsoever I shall kiss, that is he; lay hold on him, and lead him away carefully. [45] And when he was come, immediately going up to him, he saith: Hail, Rabbi; and he kissed him.[46] But they laid hands on him, and held him. [47] And one of them that stood by, drawing a sword, struck a servant of the chief priest, and cut off his ear. [48] And Jesus answering, said to them: Are you come out as to a robber, with swords and staves to apprehend me? [49] I was daily with you in the temple teaching, and you did not lay hands on me. But that the scriptures may be fulfilled. [50] Then his disciples leaving him, all fled away.[51] And a certain young man followed him, having a linen cloth cast about his naked body; and they laid hold on him. [52] But he, casting off the linen cloth, fled from them naked.

Commentary (de Lapide)

Ver. 33. He began to fear and to be heavy: ε̉κθαμβει̃σθαι καί α̉δημονει̃ν, i.e., to be affrighted and sore distressed. The Arabic is, to be very sorrowful and afraid.

Ver. 36. Abba Father: Gr. α̉ββα̃ ό πατήζ, where Father is in the nominative, as Mark interprets the Syriac word α̉ββ by the Greek πατήζ; or rather the nom. πατήζ is put for the voc. πάτεζ. For by a mark of affection, with the deepest feeling of the heart, Christ repeated the word Abba, or Father. Wherefore the Syriac has Abba Abi, i.e., Father, My Father. The Arabic has 0 Father. S. Augustine (lib. de Consens. Evang. l. 4) thinks that Christ used both the Greek and the Syriac word; and that He spoke precisely as Mark has it, namely, άββα̃ ό πατήζ. For so the Apostle speaks, “In whom we cry, Abba Father” (Rom. viii. 15, Vulg.). “We must think,” says S. Augustine, “that the Lord said ‘Abba Father’ to intimate the mystery of His Church, which was to be gathered out of Jews and Gentiles.” And the Scholiast in S. Jerome says, “He speaks in Hebrew and Greek, because there is no distinction between Jew and Greek.”

Ver. 38. The spirit indeed is willing: Syriac, willing and prompt.

Ver. 41. The hour is come: Arabic, the end, i.e., of life, is present, and the hour is come.

Ver. 44. Lead Him away carefully: Gr. α̉σφαλω̃ς, i.e., securely, safely. Arab. Fear ye concerning Him; lest, that is, He glide away out of your hands, as He has done upon other occasions.

Ver. 47. One of them, namely, Peter. “Mark does not mention Peter’s name,” says Theophylact, “that he may not seem to praise his teacher, Peter, for his greater zeal for Christ.”

Ver. 51. And a certain young man followed him having a linen cloth cast round about his naked body; and they laid hold on him. That is, he was clothed (amictus, Vulg.) with a linen vest over his naked body. It is plain, from the word amictus, that this piece of linen was a kind of linen garment, fitting the body, but so that it might easily be put on and off the back. This is also clear from Pollux, who calls the linen cloth πεζιβόλαιον, i.e., a veil, a cloak, a covering.

You will ask who this young man was: 1st S. Epiphanius (Hæres. 78) and S. Jerome, or whoever the author is on Ps. xxxviii., think that he was James the Lord’s brother.

2nd Bede and S. Chrysostom, S. Ambrose, S. Gregory, and Baronius think it was S. John; for he was a youth, and the youngest of the Apostles. But that it was neither John nor James, nor any of the Apostles, is plain from this, that Mark has just before said, ver. 50, then all His disciples, meaning, Apostles, forsook Him and fled.

3rd Theophylact and Euthymius think that the young man was some one from the house of John Mark, in which Christ had eaten the Passover.

4th And more probably, Cajetan (in Jentaculis) and others conjecture that this young man was a member or servant of a house adjacent to the garden, who, being awoke by the noise made by those who were apprehending Christ as they passed by, rose up from his bed, and ran to see what was being done. That he was a favourer or disciple of Christ appears from what Mark says, he followed Him. Wherefore also the officers laid hold of him, i.e., they wished to hold him by seizing his garment. The Hebrew active verbs often signify commencement and effort.

Ver. 52. But he, casting off the linen cloth, fled from them naked. “As Joseph,” says the Scholiast, “left his garment in the hand of his immodest mistress, and fled from her naked.”

Mark adds this incident in order to make it plain from this hasty flight of the young man how great was the trepidation about Christ, and how intense was the hatred and fury of the Jews against Christ, who even tried to seize a stranger who was following Him. Hence it is evident that far more would they have seized the Apostles, if they had not immediately fled away.

Thursday, 19 June 2014

Feast of Corpus Christi: St John 6:56-59

St John 6:

56 Caro enim mea vere est cibus: et sanguis meus, vere est potus; 57 qui manducat meam carnem et bibit meum sanguinem, in me manet, et ego in illo. 58 Sicut misit me vivens Pater, et ego vivo propter Patrem: et qui manducat me, et ipse vivet propter me. 59 Hic est panis qui de cælo descendit. Non sicut manducaverunt patres vestri manna, et mortui sunt. Qui manducat hunc panem, vivet in æternum.

For my flesh is meat indeed: and my blood is drink indeed. [57] He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, abideth in me, and I in him. [58] As the living Father hath sent me, and I live by the Father; so he that eateth me, the same also shall live by me. [59] This is the bread that came down from heaven. Not as your fathers did eat manna, and are dead. He that eateth this bread, shall live for ever.

Matins readings (from St Augustine)

Reading 9: By use of meat and drink men would fain that " they shall hunger no more, neither thirst any more," Apoc. vii. 16, and yet there is but one Meat and one Drink, Which doth work in them that feed thereon that " this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal put on immortality,"  namely communion with that general assembly and Church of God's holy children, who are "kept in perfect peace," and are "all one," fully and utterly. And therefore it is, as men of God before our time have taken it, that our Lord Jesus Christ hath set before us His Body and His Blood in the likeness of things which, from being many, are reduced into one. In one loaf are many grains of corn, and one cup of wine the juice of many grapes. 

Reading 10: And now He giveth us to know how that which He spake cometh to pass, and how indeed "this Man can give us His Flesh to eat," and His Blood to drink. "He that eateth My Flesh, and drinketh My Blood, dwelleth in Me, and I in him." To dwell in Christ, therefore, and to have Him dwelling in us, is to "eat of that Bread and drink of that Cup,".

Reading 11: And he which dwelleth not in Christ, and in whom Christ dwelleth not, without all doubt doth not spiritually eat His Flesh nor drink His Blood, although he do carnally and visibly press the Sacrament with his teeth but, contrariwise, he "eateth and drinketh damnation to himself," because he dareth to draw nigh filthy to that secret and holy thing of Christ, whereunto none draweth nigh worthily, save he which is pure, even he which is of them concerning whom it is said "Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. 

Reading 12: "As the living Father hath sent Me, and I live by the Father, so he that eateth Me, even he shall live by Me." This is as though He said: The Father hath sent Me into the world and I have emptied Myself [and taken upon Me the form of a servant, and being found in fashion as a man]. I have My life from the Father, as One That is greater than I. He that eateth Me, even he, by thereby taking part in Me, shall live by Me. It is as having humbled Myself that I live by the Father, but he that eateth Me, him will I raise up, and so he shall live by Me. It is said "I live by the Father" that is to say, He is of the Father, not the Father of Him, and yet not so, but that the Father and the Son are co-equal together. Also it is said "So he that eateth Me, even he shall live by Me," whereby He showeth the gracious work towards His people of Him Who is the "one Mediator between God and man," and not that He Which is eaten and he which eateth Him are co-equal together.

Wednesday, 18 June 2014

St Mark 14:1-26

St Mark 14:

Erat autem Pascha et azyma post biduum: et quærebant summi sacerdotes et scribæ quomodo eum dolo tenerent, et occiderent. 2 Dicebant autem: Non in die festo, ne forte tumultus fieret in populo. 3 Et cum esset Bethaniæ in domo Simonis leprosi, et recumberet, venit mulier habens alabastrum unguenti nardi spicati pretiosi: et fracto alabastro, effudit super caput ejus. 4 Erant autem quidam indigne ferentes intra semetipsos, et dicentes: Ut quid perditio ista unguenti facta est? 5 poterat enim unguentum istud venundari plus quam trecentis denariis, et dari pauperibus. Et fremebant in eam. 6 Jesus autem dixit: Sinite eam, quid illi molesti estis? Bonum opus operata est in me: 7 semper enim pauperes habetis vobiscum: et cum volueritis, potestis illis benefacere: me autem non semper habetis. 8 Quod habuit hæc, fecit: prævenit ungere corpus meum in sepulturam. 9 Amen dico vobis: Ubicumque prædicatum fuerit Evangelium istud in universo mundo, et quod fecit hæc, narrabitur in memoriam ejus. 10 Et Judas Iscariotes, unus de duodecim, abiit ad summos sacerdotes, ut proderet eum illis. 11 Qui audientes gavisi sunt: et promiserunt ei pecuniam se daturos. Et quærebat quomodo illum opportune traderet.2 Et primo die azymorum quando Pascha immolabant, dicunt ei discipuli: Quo vis eamus, et paremus tibi ut manduces Pascha? 13 Et mittit duos ex discipulis suis, et dicit eis: Ite in civitatem, et occurret vobis homo lagenam aquæ bajulans: sequimini eum, 14 et quocumque introierit, dicite domino domus, quia magister dicit: Ubi est refectio mea, ubi Pascha cum discipulis meis manducem? 15 Et ipse vobis demonstrabit cœnaculum grande, stratum: et illic parate nobis. 16 Et abierunt discipuli ejus, et venerunt in civitatem: et invenerunt sicut dixerat illis, et paraverunt Pascha. 17 Vespere autem facto, venit cum duodecim. 18 Et discumbentibus eis, et manducantibus, ait Jesus: Amen dico vobis, quia unus ex vobis tradet me, qui manducat mecum. 19 At illi cœperunt contristari, et dicere ei singulatim: Numquid ego? 20 Qui ait illis: Unus ex duodecim, qui intingit mecum manum in catino. 21 Et Filius quidem hominis vadit sicut scriptum est de eo: væ autem homini illi per quem Filius hominis tradetur! bonum erat ei, si non esset natus homo ille.22 Et manducantibus illis, accepit Jesus panem: et benedicens fregit, et dedit eis, et ait: Sumite, hoc est corpus meum. 23 Et accepto calice, gratias agens dedit eis: et biberunt ex illo omnes. 24 Et ait illis: Hic est sanguis meus novi testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur. 25 Amen dico vobis, quia jam non bibam de hoc genimine vitis usque in diem illum, cum illud bibam novum in regno Dei. 26 Et hymno dicto exierunt in montem Olivarum.

Now the feast of the pasch, and of the Azymes was after two days; and the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might by some wile lay hold on him, and kill him. [2] But they said: Not on the festival day, lest there should be a tumult among the people. [3] And when he was in Bethania, in the house of Simon the leper, and was at meat, there came a woman having an alabaster box of ointment of precious spikenard: and breaking the alabaster box, she poured it out upon his head. [4] Now there were some that had indignation within themselves, and said: Why was this waste of the ointment made? [5] For this ointment might have been sold for more than three hundred pence, and given to the poor. And they murmured against her.[6] But Jesus said: Let her alone, why do you molest her? She hath wrought a good work upon me. [7] For the poor you have always with you: and whensoever you will, you may do them good: but me you have not always. [8] She hath done what she could: she is come beforehand to anoint my body for burial. [9] Amen, I say to you, wheresoever this gospel shall be preached in the whole world, that also which she hath done, shall be told for a memorial of her. [10] And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went to the chief priests, to betray him to them.[11] Who hearing it were glad; and they promised him they would give him money. And he sought how he might conveniently betray him. [12] Now on the first day of the unleavened bread, when they sacrificed the pasch, the disciples say to him: Whither wilt thou that we go, and prepare for thee to eat the pasch? [13] And he sendeth two of his disciples, and saith to them: Go ye into the city; and there shall meet you a man carrying a pitcher of water, follow him; [14] And whithersoever he shall go in, say to the master of the house, The master saith, Where is my refectory, where I may eat the pasch with my disciples? [15] And he will shew you a large dining room furnished; and there prepare ye for us.[16] And his disciples went their way, and came into the city; and they found as he had told them, and they prepared the pasch. [17] And when evening was come, he cometh with the twelve. [18] And when they were at table and eating, Jesus saith: Amen I say to you, one of you that eateth with me shall betray me. [19] But they began to be sorrowful, and to say to him one by one: Is it I? [20] Who saith to them: One of the twelve, who dippeth with me his hand in the dish.[21] And the Son of man indeed goeth, as it is written of him: but woe to that man by whom the Son of man shall be betrayed. It were better for him, if that man had not been born. [22] And whilst they were eating, Jesus took bread; and blessing, broke, and gave to them, and said: Take ye. This is my body. [23] And having taken the chalice, giving thanks, he gave it to them. And they all drank of it. [24] And he said to them: This is my blood of the new testament, which shall be shed for many. [25] Amen I say to you, that I will drink no more of the fruit of the vine, until that day when I shall drink it new in the kingdom of God.[26] And when they had said an hymn, they went forth to the mount of Olives. 

Commentary (de Lapide)

Ver. 3. A woman having an alabaster box of ointment of precious spikenard. “Nard,” says Pliny. (l 12, c. 12), “is a shrub which has a heavy and thick, but short, black, and easily broken root. It has a strong smell, like cypress, and a pungent taste. The leaf is small and thick, and the tops unfold into ears, so that spikenard is spoken of as being doubly endowed with both leaves and ears.” From the leaves of nard ointment is made—that which is called foliated; but that made from the ears or spikes is called spikenard; and this is superior to the foliated, because it has more substance and marrow, so to say. Instead of nardus spicatus (Vulg.), the Syriac has nardus copitalis, i.e., chief, excellent, principal. As I have observed, the spikenard is superior to the foliated. The Greek has πιστικη̃ς, which the Vulg. of S. John translates pistici. Pisticus is the same as spiked. Wherefore the Arabic trans., the best.

Ver. 5. Three hundred pence. These were equivalent in value to thirty Roman aurei. So that for the thirty gold pieces which the miserable Judas accounted as lost in the anointing of Christ, he received thirty silver pieces for betraying Him.

Ver. 11. They were glad. Not only that they were about to apprehend Him without tumult, being opportunely betrayed by Judas, but also because He was beginning to be hated by His own disciples.”
Ver. 13. There shall meet you. “Observe the majesty of His Divinity,” says S. Ambrose (in Luc. xxii. 8). “He is speaking with His disciples, and yet He knows what is about to happen elsewhere.”

Ver. 14. Where is My refectory? That is, the place where I may refresh Myself with My disciples, and partake of the lamb. The Greek is κατάλυμα, or inn; the Syriac, place of dwelling; Arabic, place in which I may eat the Passover.

Furnished: provided with tables, couches, or beds and tapestry, decorated also with leaves and flowers, and all other requisites for celebrating the Passover. The Greek, Syriac, and Arabic add, έτοιμον, i.e., prepared. For God had put it into the heart of the master of the house to prepare the supper-room for the sake of Christ, that He might find a place well adorned for the celebration of the Passover, that as soon as evening came there might be no delay, but that the lamb might be roasted and eaten, and all the other things accomplished which were to be done by Christ.

Ver. 23. Giving thanks: the Syriac adds, He blessed. And they all drank of it, namely, after Christ had consecrated the chalice, saying, This is My blood, as it follows. There is, therefore, a prolepsis, or anticipation, which Mark makes use of to show that the disciples fulfilled the command of Christ. Drink ye all of it, as Matthew has, xxvi. 28.

Tuesday, 17 June 2014

St Mark 13: 24-37

24 Sed in illis diebus, post tribulationem illam, sol contenebrabitur, et luna non dabit splendorem suum: 25 et stellæ cæli erunt decidentes, et virtutes, quæ in cælis sunt, movebuntur. 26 Et tunc videbunt Filium hominis venientem in nubibus cum virtute multa et gloria. 27 Et tunc mittet angelos suos, et congregabit electos suos a quatuor ventis, a summo terræ usque ad summum cæli. 28 A ficu autem discite parabolam. Cum jam ramus ejus tener fuerit, et nata fuerint folia, cognoscitis quia in proximo sit æstas: 29 sic et vos cum videritis hæc fieri, scitote quod in proximo sit, in ostiis. 30 Amen dico vobis, quoniam non transibit generatio hæc, donec omnia ista fiant. 31 Cælum et terra transibunt, verba autem mea non transibunt.32 De die autem illo vel hora nemo scit, neque angeli in cælo, neque Filius, nisi Pater. 33 Videte, vigilate, et orate: nescitis enim quando tempus sit. 34 Sicut homo qui peregre profectus reliquit domum suam, et dedit servis suis potestatem cujusque operis, et janitori præcepit ut vigilet, 35 vigilate ergo (nescitis enim quando dominus domus veniat: sero, an media nocte, an galli cantu, an mane), 36 ne, cum venerit repente, inveniat vos dormientes. 37 Quod autem vobis dico, omnibus dico: Vigilate.

[24] But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light. [25] And the stars of heaven shall be falling down, and the powers that are in heaven, shall be moved.[26] And then shall they see the Son of man coming in the clouds, with great power and glory. [27] And then shall he send his angels, and shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from the uttermost part of the earth to the uttermost part of heaven. [28] Now of the fig tree learn ye a parable. When the branch thereof is now tender, and the leaves are come forth, you know that summer is very near. [29] So you also when you shall see these things come to pass, know ye that it is very nigh, even at the doors. [30] Amen I say to you, that this generation shall not pass, until all these things be done.[31] Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my word shall not pass away. [32] But of that day or hour no man knoweth, neither the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but the Father. [33] Take ye heed, watch and pray. For ye know not when the time is. [34] Even as a man who going into a far country, left his house; and gave authority to his servants over every work, and commanded the porter to watch. [35] Watch ye therefore, (for you know not when the lord of the house cometh: at even, or at midnight, or at the cockcrowing, or in the morning,) [36] Lest coming on a sudden, he find you sleeping. [37] And what I say to you, I say to all: Watch.

Commentary (Catena Aurea)

AUG. For He did not only foretell to His disciples the good things which He would give to His saints and faithful ones, but also the woes in which this world was to abound, that we might look for our reward at the end of the world with more confidence, from feeling the woes in like manner announced as about to precede the end of the world.

THEOPHYL. But after the coming of Antichrist, the frame of the world shall be altered and changed, for the stars shall be obscured on account of the abundance of the brightness of Christ. Wherefore it goes on: But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light; and the stars of heaven shall fall.

BEDE; For the stars in the day of judgment shall appear obscure, not by any lessening of their own light, but because of the brightness of the true light, that is, of the most high Judge coming upon them; although there is nothing to prevent its being taken to mean, that the sun and moon with all the other heavenly bodies then for a time are really to lose their light, just as we are told was the case with the sun at the time of our Lord's Passion. But after the day of judgment, when there shall be a new sky and a new earth, then shall happen what Isaiah says: Moreover, the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold. There follows, And the powers of heaven shall be shaken.

THEOPHYL. That is, the Angelic virtues shall be astonished, seeing that such great things are done, and that their fellow-servants are judged.

BEDE; What wonder is it that men should be troubled at this judgment, the sight of which makes the very Angelic powers to tremble? What will the stories of the house do when the pillars shake? What does the shrub of the wilderness undergo, when hen the cedar of paradise is moved?

PSEUDO-JEROME; Or else, the sun shall be darkened, at the coldness of their hearts, as in the winter time. And the moon shall not give her light with serenity, in this time of quarrel, and the stars of heaven shall fail in their light, when the seed of Abraham shall all but disappear, for to it they are likened. And the powers of heaven shall be stilled up to the wrath of vengeance, when they shall be sent by the Son of Man at His coming, of whose Advent it is said, And, then shall they see the Son of Man coming in the clouds with great power and glory, He, that is, who first came down like rain into the fleece of Gideon in all lowliness.

AUG. For since it was said by the Angels to the Apostles, He shall so come in like manner as you have seen him go into heaven, rightly do we believe that He will come not only in the same body, but on a cloud, since He is to come as He went away, and a cloud received Him as He was going.

THEOPHYL But they shall see the Lord as the Son of Man, that is, in the body, for that which is seen is body.

AUG. For the vision of the Son of Man is shown even to the bad, but the vision of the form of God to the pure in heart alone, for they shall see God. And because the wicked cannot see the Son of God, as He is in the form of God, equal to the Father, and at the same time both just and wicked are to see Him as Judge of the quick and dead, before Whom they shall be judged, it was necessary that the Son of Man should receive power to judge.

Concerning the execution of which power, there is immediately added And then shall he send his angels.

THEOPHYL. Observe that Christ sends the Angels as well as the Father; where then are they who say that He is not equal to the Father? For the Angels go forth to gather together the faithful, who are chosen, that they may be carried into the air to meet Jesus Christ. Wherefore it goes on: And gather together his elect from the four winds.

PSEUDO-JEROME; As corn winnowed from the threshing-floor of the whole earth.

BEDE; By the four winds, He means the four parts of the world, the east the west, the north, and the south. And lest any one should think that the elect are to be gathered together only from the four edges of the world, and not from the midland regions as well as the borders, He has fitly added, From the uttermost part of earth, to the uttermost part of heaven, that is from the extremities of the earth to its utmost bounds, where the circle of the heavens appears to those who look from afar to rest upon the boundaries of the earth. No one therefore shall be elect in that day who remains behind and does not meet the Lord in the air, when He comes to judgment. The reprobate also shall come to judgment, that when it is finished they may be scattered abroad and perish from before the face of God.

BEDE; Under the example of a tree the Lord gave a pattern of the end, saying, Now learn a parable of the fig tree, when her branch is yet tender, and puts forth leaves, you know that summer is near. So you in like manner, when you shall see these things come to pass, know that it is nigh, even at the doors.

THEOPHYL. As if He had said, As when the fig tree puts forth its leaves, summer follows at once, so also after the woes of Antichrist, at once, without an interval, shall be the coming of Christ, who will be to the just as summer after winter, but to sinners, winter after summer.

AUG. All that is said by the three Evangelists concerning the Advent of our Lord, if diligently compared together and examined, will perchance be found to belong to His daily coming in His body, that is, the Church, except those places where that last coming is so promised, as if it were approaching; for instance in the last part of the discourse according to Matthew, the coming itself is clearly expressed, where it is said, When the Son of Man shall come in his glory.

For what does he refer to in the words, when you shall see these things come to pass, but those things which He has mentioned above, amongst which it is said, And then you shall see the Son of Man coming in the clouds. The end therefore shall not be then, but then it shall be near at hand. Or are we to say, that not all those things which are mentioned above are to be taken in, but only some of them, that is, leaving out these words, Then shall you see the Son of man coming; for that shall be the end itself, and not its approach only. But Matthew has declared that it is to be received without exception, saying, When you shall see all these things, know that it is near, even at the doors. That which is said above must therefore be taken thus; And he shall send his angels, and gather together the elect from the four winds; that is, He shall collect His elect from the four winds of heaven, which He does in the whole of the last hour, coming in His members as in clouds.

BEDE; This fruit-bearing of the fig tree may also be understood to mean the state of the synagogue, which was condemned to everlasting barrenness, because when the Lord came, it had no fruits of righteousness in those who were then unfaithful. But the Apostle has said, that when the fullness of the Gentiles is come in, all Israel shall be saved. What means this, but that the tree, which has been long barren, shall then yield the fruit, which it had withheld? When this shall happen, doubt not that a summer of true peace is at hand.

PSEUDO-JEROME; Or else, the leaves which come forth are words now spoken, the summer at hand is the day of Judgment, in which every tree shall show what it had within it, deadness for burning, or greenness to be planted with the tree of life. There follows Verily I say to you, This generation shall not pass, till these things; be done.

BEDE; By generation He either means the whole race of mankind, or specially the Jews.

THEOPHYL. Or else, This generation shall not pass away, that is, the generation of Christians, until all things be fulfilled, which were spoken concerning Jerusalem and the coming of Antichrist; for He does not mean the generation of the Apostles, for the greater part of the Apostles did not live up to the destruction of Jerusalem.

But He says this of the generation of Christians, wishing to console His disciples, lest they should believe that the faith should fail at that time; for the immovable elements shall first fail, before the words of Christ fail; wherefore it is added, Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away.

BEDE; The heaven which shall pass away is not the ethereal or starry heaven, but the heaven where is the air. For wherever the water of the judgment could reach, there also, according to the words of the blessed Peter, the fire of judgment shall reach. But the heaven and the earth shall pass away in that form which they now have, but in their essence they shall last without end.

THEOPHYL. The Lord wishing to prevent His disciples from asking about that day and hour, says, But of that day and that hour knows no man, no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father. For if He had said, I know, but I will not reveal it to you, He would have saddened them not a little; but He acted more wisely, and prevents their asking such a question, lest they should importune Him, by saying, neither the Angels nor I.

HILARY; This ignorance of the day and hour is urged against the Only-Begotten God, as if, God born of God had not the same perfection of nature as God. But first, let common sense decide whether it is credible that He, who is the cause that all things are, and are to be, should be ignorant of any out of all these things. For how can it be beyond the knowledge of that nature, by which and in which that which is to be done is contained? And can He be ignorant of that day, which is the day of His own Advent? Human substances foreknow as far as they can what they intend to do, and the knowledge of what is to be done, follows upon the will to act. How then can the Lord of glory, from ignorance of the day of His coming, be believed to be of that imperfect nature, which has on it a necessity of coming, and has not attained to the knowledge of its own advent?

But again, how much more room for blasphemy will there be, if a feeling of envy is ascribed to God the Father, in that He has withheld the knowledge of His beatitude from Him to whom He gave a foreknowledge of His death. But if there are in Him all the treasures of knowledge, He is not ignorant of this day; rather we ought to remember that the treasures of wisdom in Him are hidden; His ignorance therefore must be connected with the hiding of the treasures of wisdom, which are in Him. For in all cases, in which God declares Himself ignorant, He is not under the power of ignorance, but either it is not a fit time for speaking, or it is an economy of not acting.

But if God is said then to have known that Abraham loved Him, when He did not hide that His knowledge from Abraham, it follows, that the Father is said to know the day, because He did not hide it from the Son. If therefore the Son knew not the day, it is a Sacrament of His being silent, as on the contrary the Father alone is said to know, because He is not silent. But God forbid that any new and bodily changes should be ascribed to the Father or the Son. Lastly, lest He should be said to be ignorant from weakness, He has immediately added, Take you heed, watch and pray, for you know not when the time is.

PSEUDO-JEROME; For we must needs watch with our souls before the death of the body.

THEOPHYL. But He teaches us two things, watching and prayer; for many of us watch, but watch only to pass the night in wickedness; He now follows this up with a parable, saying, For the Son of man is as a man taking a far journey, who left his house, and gave his servants power over every work, and commanded the porter to watch.

BEDE; The man who taking a far journey left his houses is Christ, who ascending as a conqueror to His Father after the resurrection, left His Church, as to His bodily presence, but has never deprived her of the safeguard of His Divine presence.

GREG. For the earth is properly the place for the flesh, which was as it were carried away to a far country, when it was placed by our Redeemer in the heavens. And he gave his servants power over every work, when, by giving to His faithful ones the grace of the Holy Ghost, He gave them the power of serving every good work. He has also ordered the porter to watch, because He commanded the order of pastors to have a care over the Church committed to them. Not only, however, those of us w ho rule over Churches, but all are required to watch the doors of their hearts, lest the evil suggestions of the devil enter into them, and lest our Lord find us sleeping.

Wherefore concluding this parable He adds, Watch you therefore: for you know not when the master of the house comes, at even, or at midnight, or at cockcrow, or in the morning:

lest coming suddenly he find you sleeping.

PSEUDO-JEROME; For he who sleeps applies not his mind to real bodies, but to phantoms, and when he awakes, he possesses not what he had seen; so also are those, whom the love of this world seizes upon in this life; they quit after this life what they dreamed was real.

THEOPHYL. See again that He has not said, I know not when the time will be, but, you know not. For the reason why He concealed it was that it was better for us; for if, now that we know not the end, we are careless, what should we do if we knew it? We should keep on our wickednesses even to the end. Let us therefore attend to His words; for the end comes at even, when a man dies in old age; at midnight, when he dies in the midst of his youth; and at cockcrow, when our reason is perfect within us; for when a child begins to live according to his reason, then the cock cries loud within him, rousing him from the sleep of sense; but the age of childhood is the morning. Now all these ages must look out for the end; for even a child must be watched, lest he die unbaptized.

PSEUDO-JEROME; He thus concludes His discourse, that the last should hear from those who come first this precept which is common to all; wherefore He adds, But what I say to you I say to all, Watch.

AUG. For He not only speaks to those in whose hearing He then spoke, but even to all who came after them, before our time, and even to us, and to all after us, even to His last coming. But shall that day find all living, or will any man say that He speaks also to the dead, when He says, Watch, lest when he comes he find you, sleeping? Why then does He say to all, what only belongs to those who shall then be alive, if it be not that it belongs to all, as I have said? For that day comes to each man when his day comes for departing from this life such as he is to be, when judged in that day, and for this reason every Christian ought to watch, lest the Advent of the Lord find him unprepared; but that day shall find him unprepared, whom the last day of his life shall find unprepared.

Monday, 16 June 2014

St Mark 13:12-23

St Mark continued:

12 Tradet autem frater fratrem in mortem, et pater filium: et consurgent filii in parentes, et morte afficient eos. 13 Et eritis odio omnibus propter nomen meum. Qui autem sustinuerit in finem, hic salvus erit.14 Cum autem videritis abominationem desolationis stantem, ubi non debet, qui legit, intelligat: tunc qui in Judæa sunt, fugiant in montes: 15 et qui super tectum, ne descendat in domum, nec introëat ut tollat quid de domo sua: 16 et qui in agro erit, non revertatur retro tollere vestimentum suum. 17 Væ autem prægnantibus et nutrientibus in illis diebus. 18 Orate vero ut hieme non fiant. 19 Erunt enim dies illi tribulationes tales quales non fuerunt ab initio creaturæ, quam condidit Deus usque nunc, neque fient. 20 Et nisi breviasset Dominus dies, non fuisset salva omnis caro: sed propter electos, quos elegit, breviavit dies. 21 Et tunc si quis vobis dixerit: Ecce hic est Christus, ecce illic, ne credideritis. 22 Exsurgent enim pseudochristi et pseudoprophetæ, et dabunt signa et portenta ad seducendos, si fieri potest, etiam electos. 23 Vos ergo videte: ecce prædixi vobis omnia.

[12] And the brother shall betray his brother unto death, and the father his son; and children shall rise up against the parents, and shall work their death. [13] And you shall be hated by all men for my name' s sake. But he that shall endure unto the end, he shall be saved. [14] And when you shall see the abomination of desolation, standing where it ought not: he that readeth let him understand: then let them that are in Judea, flee unto the mountains: [15] And let him that is on the housetop, not go down into the house, nor enter therein to take any thing out of the house:[16] And let him that shall be in the field, not turn back to take up his garment. [17] And woe to them that are with child, and that give suck in those days. [18] But pray ye, that these things happen not in winter. [19] For in those days shall be such tribulations, as were not from the beginning of the creation which God created until now, neither shall be. [20] And unless the Lord had shortened the days, no flesh should be saved: but for the sake of the elect which he hath chosen, he hath shortened the days. [21] And then if any man shall say to you, Lo, here is Christ; lo, he is here: do not believe. [22] For there will rise up false Christs and false prophets, and they shall shew signs and wonders, to seduce (if it were possible) even the elect. [23] Take you heed therefore; behold I have foretold you all things

Commentary (Catena Aurea)

BEDE; This has often been seen in time of persecution, nor can there be any firm affection amongst men who differ in faith.

THEOPHYL. And this He says, that on hearing it, they might prepare themselves to bear persecutions and ills with greater patience. Then He brings them consolation, saying, And you shall be hated of all men for my name's sake; for the being hated for Christ's sake is a sufficient reason for suffering persecutions patiently, for it is not the punishment, but the cause, that makes the martyr. Again, that which follows is no small comfort amidst persecution: But he that shall endure to the end, the same shall be saved.

GLOSS. After speaking of the things which were to happen before the destruction of the city, the Lord now foretells those which happened about the destruction itself of the city, saying, But when you shall see the abomination of desolation standing where it ought not, (let him that reads understand.)

AUG. Matthew says, standing in the holy place; but with this verbal difference Mark has expressed the same meaning; for He says where it ought not to stand, because it ought not to stand in the holy place.

BEDE; When we are challenged to understand what is said, we may conclude that it is mystical. But it may either be said simply of Antichrist, or of the statue of Caesar, which Pilate put into the temple, or of the equestrian statue of Adrian, which for a long time stood in the holy of holies itself. An idol is also called abomination according to the Old Testament, and he has added of desolation, because it was placed in the temple when desolate and deserted.

THEOPHYL. Or he means by the abomination of desolation, the entrance of enemies into the city by violence.

AUG. But Luke, in order to show that the abomination of desolation happened w hen Jerusalem was taken, in this same place gives the words of our Lord, And, when you shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies, then know that the desolation thereof is nigh. It goes on: Then let them that be in Judea flee to the mountains.

BEDE; It is on record that this was literally fulfilled, when on the approach of the war with Rome and the extermination of the Jewish people, all the Christians who were in that province, warned by the prophecy, fled far away, as Church history relates, and retiring beyond Jordan, remained for a time in the city of Pella under the protection of Agrippa, the king of the Jews, of whom mention is made in the Acts, and who with that part of the Jews, who chose to obey him, always continued subject to the Roman empire.

THEOPHYL. And well does he say, Who are in Judea, for the Apostles were no longer in Judea, but before the battle had been driven from Jerusalem.

GLOSS. Or rather went out of their own accord, being led: by the Holy Ghost. It goes on, And let him that is on the housetop not go down, into the house, neither enter therein, to take any thing out of his house; for it is a desirable thing to be saved even naked from such a destruction.

It goes on: But woe to them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days.

BEDE; That is, they whose wombs or whose hands, overladen with the burden of children, in no small measure impede their forced flight.

THEOPHYL. But it seems to me, that in these words He foretells the eating of children, for when afflicted by famine and pestilence, they laid hands on their children.

GLOSS. Again, after having mentioned this double impediment to flight, which might arise either from the desire of taking away property, or from having children to carry, He touches upon the third obstacle, namely, that coming from the season; saying, And pray you that your flight be not in the winter.

THEOPHYL. That is, lest they who wish to fly should be impeded by the difficulties of the season. And He fitly gives the cause for so great a necessity for flight; saying, For in those days shall be affliction, such as was not from the beginning of the creation which God created to this time, neither shall be.

AUG. For Josephus, who has written the history of the Jews, relates that such things were suffered by this people, as are scarcely credible, wherefore it is said, not without cause, that there was not such tribulation from the beginning of the creation until now, nor shall ever be. But although in the time of Antichrist there shall be one similar or greater, we must understand that it is of that people, that it is said that there shall never happen such another. For if they are the first and foremost to receive Antichrist, that same people may rather be said to cause than to suffer tribulation.

BEDE; The only refuge in such evils is, that God who gives strength to suffer, should abridge the power of inflicting. Wherefore there follows: And except that the Lord had shortened those days.

THEOPHYL. That is, if the Roman war had not been soon finished, no flesh should be saved; that is, no Jew should have escaped; but for the elect's sake, whom he has chosen, that is, for the sake of the believing Jews, or who were hereafter to believe, He has shortened the days, that is, the war was soon finished, for God foresaw that many Jews would believe after the destruction of the city; for which reason He would not suffer the whole race to be utterly destroyed.

AUG. But some persons more fitly understand that the calamities themselves are signified by days, as evil days are spoken of in other parts of holy Scripture; for the days themselves are not evil, but what is done in them. The woes themselves therefore are said to be abridged, because through the patience which God gave they felt them less, and then what was great in itself was abridged.

BEDE; Or else; these words, In those days shall be affliction, properly agree with the times of Antichrist, when not only tortures more frequent, and more painful than before are to be heaped on the faithful, but also, what is more terrible, the working of miracles shall accompany those who inflict torments. But in proportion as this tribulation shall be greater then those which preceded, by so much shall it be shorter. For it is believed, that during three years and a half, as far as may be conjectured from the prophecy of Daniel and the Revelations of John, the Church is to be attacked. In a spiritual sense, however, when we see the abomination of desolation standing where it ought not, that is, heresies and climes reigning amongst them, who appear to be consecrated by the heavenly mysteries, then whosoever of us remain in Judea, that is, in the confession of the true faith, ought to mount the higher in virtue, the more men we see following the broad paths of vice.

PSEUDO-JEROME; For our flight is to the mountains, that he who has mounted to the heights of virtue may not go down to the depths of sin.

BEDE; Then let him who is on the house-top, that is, whose mind rises above carnal deeds, and who lives spiritually, as it were in the free air, not come down to the base acts of his former conversation, nor seek again those things which he had left, the desires of the world or the flesh. For our house either means this world, or that in which we live, our own flesh.

PSEUDO-JEROME; Pray that your flight may not be in the winter, or on the sabbath day, that is, that the fruit of our work may not be ended with the end of time; for fruit comes to an end in the winter and time in the sabbath.

BEDE; But if we are to understand it of the consummation of the world, He commands that our faith and love for Christ should not grow cold, and that we should not grow lazy and cold in the work of God, by taking a sabbath from virtue.

THEOPHYL. We must also avoid sin with fervor, and not coldly and quietly.

PSEUDO-JEROME; But the tribulation shall be great, and the days short, for the sake of the elect, lest the evil of this time should change their understanding.

Sunday, 15 June 2014

Trinity Sunday: St Matthew 28:18-20

The Gospel for Trinity Sunday:

18 Et accedens Jesus locutus est eis, dicens: Data est mihi omnis potestas in cælo et in terra: 19 euntes ergo docete omnes gentes: baptizantes eos in nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti: 20 docentes eos servare omnia quæcumque mandavi vobis: et ecce ego vobiscum sum omnibus diebus, usque ad consummationem sæculi.

[18] And Jesus coming, spoke to them, saying: All power is given to me in heaven and in earth. [19] Going therefore, teach ye all nations; baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. [20] Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and behold I am with you all days, even to the consummation of the world.

Matins Readings

Reading 9: (Homily by St Gregory of Nazianzus): There is no Catholic but knoweth that the Father is a Very Father, the Son a Very Son, and the Holy Ghost a Very Holy Ghost, even as the Lord Himself saith unto His Apostles " Go ye and baptize all nations in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." This is that Perfect Trinity Who is but ONE being, and of Whom therefore we testify that His Substance is one. 

Reading 10: For we make no division in God, as divisions are made in bodies, but we testify, that, according to the power of the Divine Nature, Which standeth not in matter, the Persons named have a real existence, and that God is ONE.  We do not say, as some have dreamt, that the Begetting of the Son of God is an outgrowing from one part to another part neither do we say that He is the Word in the sense of a mere sound uttered by a voice, but we do believe that these three Names and the Persons meant by them are all of only One Being, One Majesty, and One Power. 

Reading 11: And therefore we testify that God is one, because this ONE-ness of His Majesty forbiddeth that we should use the Plural form of speech and say, "Gods." It is Catholic language to say, " Father and Son," but we cannot and must not say that the Father and the Son are two gods. And that, not because the Son of God is not by Himself God yea, He is Very God of Very God but because we know that the Son of God is not from elsewhere, but from the One Father Himself, and therefore we say that God is ONE. 

Reading 12: This is the doctrine which Prophets and Apostles have delivered this is the doctrine which the Lord Himself taught when He said, " I and the Father are ONE," John x. 30, that is, He meant, as touching the one Divine Being, but as touching Persons, We are distinct.